Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)

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The Dense, Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) documents provide guidance on characterizing, remediating, and monitoring DNAPL source zones.
The Bioremediation of DNAPLs (BioDNAPLs) documents address the selection and design of in situ bioremediation (ISB) systems for chlorinated ethene DNAPL source zones, as well as technical and related regulatory considerations.

Understanding the complexity of subsurface geologic conditions is paramount in improving DNAPL site characterization. This guidance document reviews the current knowledge of DNAPLs and their subsurface contaminant behavior. Using an integrated site characterization (ISC) approach, under which data of adequate resolution are collected to fully characterize a site, this new guidance describes how data can be aligned on contaminant distribution with site geologic heterogeneity and groundwater flow conditions at a spatial resolution appropriate to the site-specific remedial objectives. Thus, with the current understanding of subsurface contaminant behavior, both existing and new tools and techniques can be used to measure physical, chemical, and hydrologic subsurface parameters to better characterize the subsurface.

The Integrated DNAPL Site Strategy document provides a collaborative process for developing an effective and integrated strategy to manage remediation of sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents.
The Mass Flux document summarizes the concepts underlying mass flux and discharge, their potential applications, and case studies of the uses of these metrics.
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