Remediation of contaminated sediments commonly targets the complimentary goals of protecting human health and the environment and restoring impaired environmental resources to beneficial use. Although the selection and implementation of sediment remedies can be straightforward for simple sites, many contaminated sediment sites are challenging from a technical and risk-management perspective. This guidance document offers a remedy selection framework to help project managers evaluate remedial technologies and develop remedial alternatives (often composed of multiple technologies) based on site-specific data. General categories of contaminated sediment remedial technologies covered in this guidance document include monitored natural recovery (MNR) and enhanced monitored natural recovery (EMNR); in situ treatment; capping (conventional and amended); and removal (dredging and excavation).
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The objective of this guidance document is to assist decision-makers in identifying which contaminated sediment remedial technology is most favorable for a site based upon an evaluation of site-specific physical, sediment, contaminant, and land and waterway use characteristics. A six-step remedy selection framework is provided to help the user identify favorable technologies and remedial alternatives. Additional factors that need to be considered as part of the evaluation process are summarized (e.g. feasibility, cost, stakeholder and local governments concerns, and others).