The LNAPLs (Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids) documents help users identify appropriate LNAPL remedial goals through the development of a site-specific LNAPL conceptual site model (LCSM), provides tools to select LNAPL remedial technologies that will best achieve the LNAPL remedial goals, and provides a framework to evaluate the implemented technologies progress toward a technology specific endpoint.
The Biofuels document addresses the causes and prevention of post-manufacture biofuel releases, impacts to environmental media, characterization methods, remedial responses, and stakeholder concerns.
The Mass Flux document summarizes the concepts underlying mass flux and discharge, their potential applications, and case studies of the uses of these metrics.
Petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) is a subset of vapor intrusion (VI) and is the process by which volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released as vapors from light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), petroleum-contaminated soils, or petroleum-contaminated groundwater migrate through the vadose zone and into overlying buildings. Fortunately, in the case of PHC vapors, this migration is often limited by microorganisms that are normally present in soil. The organisms consume these chemicals, reducing them to nontoxic end products through the process of biodegradation. The extent and rate to which this natural biodegradation process occurs is strongly influenced by the concentration of the vapor source, the distance the vapors must travel through soil from the source to potential receptors, and the presence of oxygen (O2) in the subsurface environment between the source and potential receptors.